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Data Processing Neco Answers 2022

Data Processing Neco Answers 2022

(4ai)

Graphic packages are programs that allow you to create graphic pictures, logos, letter headed papers, brochures, calendars, etc.

OR

Graphic Package is a collection of programs that allows for easy creation, selection and deliberate manipulation of text and images using distinctive styles on a computer for the purpose of clarity and effective communication.

(4aii)

(i) Painting packages.

(ii) Drawing packages.

(4aiii)

{CHOOSE ANY TWO}

(i) Drawing straight lines and freehand lines

(ii) Drawing regular pre-defined shapes like squares, rectangles and circles using a special tool

(iii) Entering text and changing the style and size of font

(iv) Changing the size of an object or scaling

(v) Rotating objects in either clockwise or anticlockwise by specifying the direction and angle of rotation;

(vi) Stretching objects either horizontally or vertically.

(4b)

(i) First normal form (1NF) is a property of a relation in a relational database. A relation is in first normal form if and only if no attribute domain has relations as elements. Or more informally, that no table column can have tables as values (or no repeating groups).

(ii) Second normal form:

A relation is in second normal form if it is in 1NF and every non key attribute is fully functionally dependent on the primary key. A university uses the following relation:

• The attributes IDSt and IDProf are the identification keys.

• All attributes a single valued (1NF).

(iii) Third normal form (3NF) is a database schema design approach for relational databases which uses normalizing principles to reduce the duplication of data, avoid data anomalies, ensure referential integrity, and simplify data management. It was defined in 1971 by Edgar F. Codd, an English computer scientist who invented the relational model for database management.

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NECO OFFICE PRACTICE

(5ai)

ADVANTAGES OF CENTRALIZED FILING

{CHOOSE ANY FOUR}

(i) It ensures uniformity and of filing system as the filing operation of various departments is done at one place.

(ii) Centralised filing avoids unnecessary duplication of filing equipments.

(iii) It ensures better supervision and here better work is performed by-a group of specialists under the control of a supervisor.

(iv) As all the records are kept at one place, it facilitates easy location of records.

(v) Centralised filing avoids botheration of departments for record keeping.

(5aii)

DISADVANTAGES OF CENTRALIZED FILING

{CHOOSE ANY THREE}

(i) Records may become more vulnerable since they are stored in one central location.

(ii) It may cause great delay in bringing records if most office staff required several documents at a time.

(iii) The risk of loss due to fire, theft and the like is more since all the documents are stored in only one place.

(iv) The filing department may enforce rules and procedure rigidly regarding receiving and returning the files. This may affect the smooth functioning of functional department operations

(2a)

{CHOOSE TWO}

(i) Formal channels.

(ii) Informal channels.

(iii) Unofficial channels.

-EXPLANATION-

{CHOOSE ONE TO EXPLAIN}

(i) Formal channels

It is an official way of communicating. A formal communication channel transmits information such as the goals, policies and procedures of an organization. Messages in this type of communication channel follow a chain of command. This means information flows from a manager to his subordinates and they in turn pass on the information to the next level of staff. Some examples include company newsletters, business plans, instructions, annual reports, agreements, company-wide communications, board presentations etc.

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(ii) Informal channels: It is also an official way of communicating, with somewhat relaxed norms. There may not be a need for a chain of command or hierarchy in this kind of communication. There will be immense official communication where such hierarchy or command is not needed, but they happen within the official framework. Some examples will include conversations on the work floor addressing queries of team members, lunch time conversations, many of the emails where formal command is not needed such as someone is seeking some quick information etc. Under the official environment, both formal and informal channels are used as needed.

(iii) Unofficial channels: There exists an unofficial mode of communication as well. The employees communicate outside work environment on topics not related to work. General social, sports, political and personal communication are unofficial channels. But a manager needs to be aware about the existence of such a channel and information flowing in them. Many times rumours and gossips also provide very important information which otherwise will not be available.

(2aii)

{CHOOSE ANY FOUR}

(i)coaxial cable

(ii) twisted-pair

(iii) satellite

(iv) phone lines

(v) twisted pair cables

(vi) coaxial cables

(2bi)

Word Processing refers to the act of using a computer to create, edit, save and print documents.

(2bii)

{CHOOSE ANY TWO}

(i) Microsoft word.

(ii) Corel word perfect.

(iii) Word star.

(iv) Lotus WordPro

(2biii)

(i) Save

(ii) Save As

DATA PROCESSING

01-10: CDCDBCBAEA

11-20: AABEDDDEEB

21-30: CAECABDBCA

31-40: EBCBCBCDCB

41-50: BABDBDDDBC

51-60: BBDAABBCCD

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